Fetal growth restriction is defined as a pathologic decrease in the rate of fetal growth the most frequent etiology for late onset fetal growth restriction is uteroplacental dysfunction which is due to inadequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to support normal aerobic growth of the fetus. In sheep intrauterine growth restriction can be caused by heat stress in early to mid pregnancy the effect is attributed to reduced placental development causing reduced fetal growth hormonal effects appear implicated in the reduced placental development. Fetal growth restriction fgr is defined as the inability of a fetus to maintain expected growth with estimated fetal weight or actual birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age fgr occurs in 5 10 of all pregnancies and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period and infancy . The most common definition of fetal growth restriction is a fetal weight that is below the 10th percentile for gestational age as determined through an ultrasound this can also be called small for gestational age sga or intrauterine growth restriction iugr. The placenta as the vector for all maternal fetal oxygen and nutrient exchange is a principal influence on birthweight placental weight summarizes laterally expanding growth of the chorionic disc and villous arborization yielding the nutrient exchange surface
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